Education in India – An Introduction
Education in India is the prime constituent of Human Resource Development which
in turn shapes the socio – economic fabric of our country. No doubt the earlier
visionaries have laid such great stress on developing the intellectual capital of
The government’s utmost priority to eradicate illiteracy can be gauged from the
fact that it has incorporated education as a constitutional and fundamental right
for children between the age group of 6 to 14 which is compulsory and to be imparted
free of cost.
The government through its various programmes and campaigns has accorded education
the status of a nationalistic crusade in its endeavour to completely eradicate illiteracy
from the country.
Education in India – Demographics
The literacy rate as per census 2011 was 74.04% of the populace which is way below
the world average of 83.4% in 2008. Census statistics reveal that the rapid growth
in literacy transpired after 1991, which was triggered due to the ushering of the
computer era. However the literacy rate is favourably skewed towards the male populace
and also localised to the urban areas, which over the years has diminished rapidly.
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The current statutory budget allocation on the education sector has been 3.8% of
the GDP but the ground level implementation and response has been phenomenal due
to the introduction of the mid day meal, adult education, distance learning and
audio visual learning programmes undertaken by the government and NGO’s which have
been very effective in promoting literacy.
Education in India – Quantification.
After China and U.S., India has the largest higher education system in the world
in terms of enrolments. As per MHRD Annual Report 2011-2012, the number of students
enrolled in Indian universities and colleges in the year 2012 was 1.6 crore. India
also has the largest higher education system in the world in terms of the number
The number of universities in India in FY 2012 was 659 and colleges were 33023.
The Human Resources Development Ministry has projected 30% of students to pursue
higher education by 2020 which will entail a further addition of 800 universities
and 35000 colleges to the current tally. Of the total national student population
15% pursue the technology/engineering degree programmes while 85% pursue the bachelor’s
The Indian education sector is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 16%
in the forthcoming five years. Analysts anticipate the current market size of the
Indian education sector to grow to Rs 6,02,140 crore in FY – 2015 from Rs 3,41,180
crore in FY - 2012. A large student pool, leading to generation of substantial revenues
has enthused market players to substantially invest in the sector. Foreign direct
investment to this sector in FY 2012 stood at Rs 18.73 crore.
Education in India - Future
A knowledge society has immense potential to graduate up the value chain in the
era of increased globalisation. This aspiration of the Indian middle class to further
their lifestyles has unleashed its propensity to substantially invest in harnessing
the growth of intellectual capital. No doubt that the world looks at India as “The
Education in India today is a fervent zeal of every citizen and prosperity is its
Disclaimer: This information has been collected from secondary research, hence we
are not responsible for any errors in the same.