Education System In India - An Introduction
The history of education in India has a rich heritage since times immemorial. Sages
in India ran personal boarding schools popularly known as “Gurukul” where children
received education and also helped in the daily domestic chores of their teachers.
Introduction of modern day education in India by declaring English as the official
language was pioneered by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in 1833. The British colonial
rulers are the true proponents of modern day education in India. Thereafter various
universities were established in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai along with government
and non government colleges all over the country and many western Christian missions
also contributed by establishing private schools for imparting elementary education.
The vision and reach of education system in India has still not been fulfilled and
has a long way to go. The literacy rate per census 2011 is 74.04% against the world
average of 84%. India has the largest illiterate population of the world. It is
believed by a study in 1990 that at the then prevalent literacy growth rate, India
would accomplish universal literacy by 2060. The education system In India has a
horrendous task to accomplish for the attainment of complete literacy in the shortest
possible time for becoming an admirable global brain power.
Education System in India - Policies
Must Read - Education India
The policies and programmes to be implemented by the schools at the national level
are decided by the Government of India, though the states have a lot of freedom
in implementing them. The national organisation for framing the policies, programmes
and the national curriculum framework is the National Council of Education Research
and Training. The State Council of Education Research and Training are the state
level bodies that propose the curricula, pedagogical schemes, educational strategies
and evaluation methodologies to the education departments of their respective states.
The National Policy on Education, 1986 and The Programme of Action, 1992 accorded
free and compulsory education for all children below 14 years of age. Though the
government is committed to earmark 6% of its GDP on education, it current allocation
Education System In India - School Education
Schooling in India has a four tier strata lower primary which includes children
of the age bracket 6-10 years, upper primary 11-12 years, high 13-15 years, and
higher secondary 17- 18 years. Lower primary has five standards, upper primary has
two, high school has three and higher secondary has two. A common curriculum pattern
is followed till the end of high school except for the mother tongue which varies
from state to state. Higher secondary level initiates some basic and broad level
of specialisation. Nationwide students have to learn three languages – English,
Hindi and their mother language.
On the national level there are two exam conducting institutions namely The Central
Board of Secondary Education and The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education.
Each and every state government has their own education board which conducts exams
for schools located in the state which are funded by it either wholly or partially.
Education System in India - Future
Education system in India has still a lot to grow. Merely increasing literacy rate
is no solution to the problem. The need of the hour is to create a knowledge nation
which can be accomplished by:-
- Imparting skill based instead of rote education.
- Deploying quality teachers.
- Introducing research, innovation, creativity and original thinking.
- Inducing technology infrastructure for education.
- Redefining the purpose of education – creating more scientists and fewer clerks.
- Bringing class and rooting out mediocrity from the system.
- Reducing interference and deregulating education.